In order to determine if a company is fairly valued, we can look at a number of different ratios and metrics. First off we’ll take a look at the Price to Cash Flow ratio of ImmuCell Corporation (NasdaqCM:ICCC). The firm currently has a P/CF ratio of 219.528647.

This is the current Price divided by Cash Flow Per Share for the trailing twelve months. Cash Flow is defined as Income After Taxes minus Preferred Dividends and General Partner Distributions plus Depreciation, Depletion and Amortization.

**Profitability**

The Return on Invested Capital (aka ROIC) for ImmuCell Corporation (NasdaqCM:ICCC) is -0.046299. The Return on Invested Capital is a ratio that determines whether a company is profitable or not. It tells investors how well a company is turning their capital into profits. The ROIC is calculated by dividing the net operating profit (or EBIT) by the employed capital. The employed capital is calculated by subrating current liabilities from total assets. Similarly, the Return on Invested Capital Quality ratio is a tool in evaluating the quality of a company’s ROIC over the course of five years. The ROIC Quality of ImmuCell Corporation (NasdaqCM:ICCC) is 1.023409. This is calculated by dividing the five year average ROIC by the Standard Deviation of the 5 year ROIC. The ROIC 5 year average is calculated using the five year average EBIT, five year average (net working capital and net fixed assets). The ROIC 5 year average of ImmuCell Corporation (NasdaqCM:ICCC) is 0.049731.

ImmuCell Corporation (NasdaqCM:ICCC) has a Price to Book ratio of 1.588552. This ratio is calculated by dividing the current share price by the book value per share. Investors may use Price to Book to display how the market portrays the value of a stock. Checking in on some other ratios, the company has a Price to Cash Flow ratio of 219.528647, and a current Price to Earnings ratio of -38.316088. The P/E ratio is one of the most common ratios used for figuring out whether a company is overvalued or undervalued.

After a recent scan, we can see that ImmuCell Corporation (NasdaqCM:ICCC) has a Shareholder Yield of -0.130363 and a Shareholder Yield (Mebane Faber) of -0.2884. The first value is calculated by adding the dividend yield to the percentage of repurchased shares. The second value adds in the net debt repaid yield to the calculation. Shareholder yield has the ability to show how much money the firm is giving back to shareholders via a few different avenues. Companies may issue new shares and buy back their own shares. This may occur at the same time. Investors may also use shareholder yield to gauge a baseline rate of return.

The EBITDA Yield is a great way to determine a company’s profitability. This number is calculated by dividing a company’s earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization by the company’s enterprise value. Enterprise Value is calculated by taking the market capitalization plus debt, minority interest and preferred shares, minus total cash and cash equivalents. The EBITDA Yield for ImmuCell Corporation (NasdaqCM:ICCC) is -0.00847.

There are many different tools to determine whether a company is profitable or not. One of the most popular ratios is the “Return on Assets” (aka ROA). This score indicates how profitable a company is relative to its total assets. The Return on Assets for ImmuCell Corporation (NasdaqCM:ICCC) is -0.038446. This number is calculated by dividing net income after tax by the company’s total assets. A company that manages their assets well will have a higher return, while a company that manages their assets poorly will have a lower return.

**Quant Scores**

The Gross Margin Score is calculated by looking at the Gross Margin and the overall stability of the company over the course of 8 years. The score is a number between one and one hundred (1 being best and 100 being the worst). The Gross Margin Score of ImmuCell Corporation (NasdaqCM:ICCC) is 44. The more stable the company, the lower the score. If a company is less stable over the course of time, they will have a higher score.

The C-Score is a system developed by James Montier that helps determine whether a company is involved in falsifying their financial statements. The C-Score is calculated by a variety of items, including a growing difference in net income verse cash flow, increasing days outstanding, growing days sales of inventory, increasing assets to sales, declines in depreciation, and high total asset growth. The C-Score of ImmuCell Corporation (NasdaqCM:ICCC) is 2. The score ranges on a scale of -1 to 6. If the score is -1, then there is not enough information to determine the C-Score. If the number is at zero (0) then there is no evidence of fraudulent book cooking, whereas a number of 6 indicates a high likelihood of fraudulent activity. The C-Score assists investors in assessing the likelihood of a company cheating in the books.

The ERP5 Rank is an investment tool that analysts use to discover undervalued companies. The ERP5 looks at the Price to Book ratio, Earnings Yield, ROIC and 5 year average ROIC. The ERP5 of ImmuCell Corporation (NasdaqCM:ICCC) is 11988. The lower the ERP5 rank, the more undervalued a company is thought to be.

At the time of writing, ImmuCell Corporation (NasdaqCM:ICCC) has a Piotroski F-Score of 2. The F-Score may help discover companies with strengthening balance sheets. The score may also be used to spot the weak performers. Joseph Piotroski developed the F-Score which employs nine different variables based on the company financial statement. A single point is assigned to each test that a stock passes. Typically, a stock scoring an 8 or 9 would be seen as strong. On the other end, a stock with a score from 0-2 would be viewed as weak.

Checking in on some valuation rankings, ImmuCell Corporation (NasdaqCM:ICCC) has a Value Composite score of 64. Developed by James O’Shaughnessy, the VC score uses five valuation ratios. These ratios are price to earnings, price to cash flow, EBITDA to EV, price to book value, and price to sales. The VC is displayed as a number between 1 and 100. In general, a company with a score closer to 0 would be seen as undervalued, and a score closer to 100 would indicate an overvalued company. Adding a sixth ratio, shareholder yield, we can view the Value Composite 2 score which is currently sitting at 70.